The synapser package has low level dependencies like openssl, zlib and the development version of curl. These are usually provided in linux installations but if you are using the r-base Docker image ( they are not included. The following Dockerfile ensures the required dependencies are in place and also installs synapser.

FROM r-base
RUN rm /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/default
RUN apt-get update -y
RUN apt-get install -y dpkg-dev zlib1g-dev libssl-dev libffi-dev
RUN apt-get install -y curl libcurl4-openssl-dev
RUN R -e "install.packages('synapser', repos=c('', ''))"